PT Positivity Test

Authors:
Gian Vittorio Caprara, Guido Alessandri, Patrizia Steca
Polish adaptation:
Urszula Brzezińska
Age:
Adults
Procedure:
Both individual and group administration is possible; no time limit; average administration time 10 min.
Especially useful for:
Psychologists, educational counsellors, psychotherapists, health promotion, professional counsellors, personal development
Category:
B1 – for psychologists; other professionals only after general psychometric training

Positivity Test PT is a self-assessment method designed to measure positive attitude. It allows to measure how persons regard themselves, their futures, lives and to what extent they trust others.

Positivity or positive thinking can be described as a basic, general tendency to approach everyday life with hope and trust. This attitude proved to be a good predictor of professional career. Positivity pervades various human attitudes and affects the way persons regard reality and this, in turn, may have significant influence on the value and importance a person give to her existence in the world.

Each statement in the questionnaire (which totals 34 items) is assessed on the scale of five grades with the extremes of “I totally agree” and “I totally disagree”. The scale offers insight into examinees’ positive (or negative) self-perceptions. Ultimately self-esteem, optimism and life-satisfaction are “generalized assessment categories” which affect individual emotions, cognition and actions. All the three constructs are positively correlated with indices of adaptation and success in life and work.

The questionnaire allows to obtain three detailed and two general scores indicating the intensity of positive thinking:

  • Multidimensional Positive Orientation Scale (MPOS) measures orientation towards oneself, others and the future and thereby provides positivity profile. Score in three sub-scales together provide a general score on the Positive Orientation Scale.
  • Positivity Scale (P) was designed as a quick and easy tool for direct positivity measurement. It measures self-esteem, evaluations of life and future as well as general trust towards other people, thereby providing a single and simple score related to the construct of positivity.

Moreover, the questionnaire allows to take into account how social approval affects scores on the scales measuring various aspects of positivity. The questionnaire includes two control scales measuring heroic self-esteem and moralistic self-esteem.

Reliability: Internal consistency estimated using the Cronbach alpha and the omega coefficients proved satisfactory in the case of general positivity scales and control scales. Reliability features of the three sub-scales of the MPOS scale require them to be used with caution in individual assessment. All scores proved stable within a four weeks test-retest period.

Validity: Factor validity of the tool was verified and inter-scale correlations were explored. Correlations were also found between PT scales and such constructs as stress coping styles, cognitive styles, self-uncertainty and prudence, depression risk, personal indicators of preferred work style, leadership styles, professional burnout, organization behaviours, willingness to use new technologies and work satisfaction.

Norms: General norms (developed on the sample of N=577), s-ten scale. National quota sample in terms of age, gender, education and residence. Sample respondents included adults aged 20-79, working or retired, with middle-school, high-school or college levels of education; village, town and city inhabitants from all of Poland’s 16 voivodships.

Applicability: The tool may be used for research purposes and as an additional tool in individual assessment. Areas of psychology where positivity research might be an interesting and complementary source of information include health psychology, sport psychology, psychological counselling, psychotherapy support, coaching  and development counselling, as well as employees’ selection for jobs requiring resistance to stress and tension (e.g. jurisdiction diagnosis requiring implementation of screen measures directed at good adaptation and adaptation skills). The tool may also prove useful as complementary in test batteries used in psychological examinations during family court proceedings or to assess candidates for child or elderly persons care. The PT questionnaire may also be applied by clinicians to assess mood changes or disorders such as depression.  

Materials:

  • The complete kit (original manual, Polish manual, 25 cop. of questionnaire sheets, 25 cop. of score cards)
  • Original manual (translation)
  • Manual with Polish norms
  • Questionnaire sheets (25 cop.)
  • Score cards (25 cop.)

PT manuals

Please note: All of our tests are published in Polish. There are not available other language versions of our tools.

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