Positivity Test
Gian Vittorio Caprara, Guido Alessandri, Patrizia Stec

The  Positivity Test co-authored by Gian Vittorio Caprara, Guido Alessandri and Patrizia Steca (2013; Polish manual in preparation)  is an Italian measure designed to assess positivity.

This latter is here understood as a personality tendency to use stable categories while describing one's own existence and making it meaningful. The categories refer to the self-attitude, attitude towards the future, assessment of the past and of the relations with others. The concept of positivity is close to, but not identical with, the notion of optimism. The basic assumption of the positivity orientation, according to its main founder G.V. Caprara, is that a human being who perceives himself/herself, his/her own life and future positively is predisposed to cope effectively with his/her own life despite difficulties and obstacles (Sobol-Kwapińska, 2014). S/he tends to evaluate himself/herself positively, to feel satisfied with life and view chances of reaching his/her own goals as high. The positive orientation is responsible for the human being's adaptive functioming (Łaguna, Oleś, Filipiuk, 2011).

The Positivity Test includes two scales:

  • The Positivity Scale
  • The Multi-dimensional Positive Orientation Scale

Scores on the latter are described in four dimensions

1) positive orientation – a general score
2) positive self-evaluation
3) positive attitude towards the future
4)  positive relation with other people and the world

The Positivity Test also brings scores on the two control scales which measure tendency to present oneself in the overly positive way. The first of these is the Heroic Self-Presentation scale which shows tendency to present oneself as capable, competent, wise and brave. The second, the Moralistic Self-Presentation scale shows, in turn, tendency to present oneself as other-oriented, polite and sensitive to others' needs as well as observing the rules of social life.

Works cited:

Caprara, V., C., Alessandri, G., Steca, P. (2013). Positivity Test PT. Manuale. Firenze: Hogrefe Editore.
Łaguna, M., Oleś, P., Filipiuk, D. (2011). Orientacja pozytywna i jej pomiar: polska adaptacja Skali Orientacji Pozytywnej. Studia Psychologiczne, 49, 4, 47-54.
Sobol-Kwapińska, M. (2014). Orientacja pozytywna– koncepcje teoretyczne i przegląd badań [Positive orientation – theoretical conceptsand review of research]. Studia Psychologiczne, 52, 1, 77-90.

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