M. Rosenberg
Polish adaptation and manual:
Irena Dzwonkowska, Kinga Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Mariola Łaguna (2008)
Adolescents, adults.
Individual or group administration, no time limit – approx. 2 to 5 min.
Especially useful for:
Psychologists (MA degree in psychology required); educators, sociologists – after completing the training
B1 – for psychologists; other professionals only after general psychometric training

The questionnaire measures overall level of self-esteem.

DESCRIPTION: The scale is a one-dimension tool which measures the level of global self-esteem – relatively constant disposition understood as conscious attitude (positive or negative) towards Self. It consists of 10 diagnostic questions. Subject answers on a four-point scale depending on the degree to which he or she agrees with the statements.

RELIABILITY: High internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha for different age groups vary between .81 and .83) Stability indicators estimated by test-retest method are: .50 (one-year interval) and .83 (one-week interval).

VALIDITY: Numerous data confirming the construct validity of the SES were collected during the Polish adaptation, such as results of the explorative and confirmative factor analysis, correlations with questionnaires measuring other constructs, e.g. depression, narcissistic personality, temperament, locus of control, optimism, fundamental hope, social competences or shyness.

NORMS:  Separately for women and men in three age groups: 14 – 18, 19 – 24, 25 – 75. The basis for the norms were the scores of a 1579-strong sample. The normalization sample was not design as a quota sample.

APPLICATIONS: Considering the well-verified in the Polish adaptation construct validity, and ease in application, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is recommended most of all in research settings. The manual contains also data useful in score interpretation during the individual diagnosis.

Note! According to information posted on website:, the test sheet of the SES may be used in research for free and without explicit permission of the copyright holder (M. Rosenberg’s inheritors). For this reason, the test sheet of the Polish version is not for sale and it was placed on our website: in PDF to print and copy freely (for research purposes only).

•    Manual with Polish standardization
•    Test sheet (free, in PDF)


Please note: All of our tests are published in Polish. There are not available other language versions of our tools.

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