Mariola Łaguna, Jerzy Trzebiński, Mariusz Zięba (2005)
High school (above 16 yrs.) or college adolescents, adults
Group or individual administration, test time doesn’t exceed 10 minutes
Especially useful for:
Psychologists, other specialists (educators, sociologists, doctors, health promotion, psychotherapists) – MA diploma in psychological, pedagogical, sociological and medical studies required
A – for psychologists and other professionals (MA required)

KNS measures hope for success as expecting positive outcome of one’s actions. It consists of two components: belief in having strong will, i. e. being aware of one’s agency expressed in goal striving, perseverance, and belief in one's ability to find solutions based on one’s knowledge and mental abilities expressed in situations requiring creative problem solving.

DESCRIPTION: The questionnaire consists of 12 statements which applicability is rated by the subjects on a scale from 1 (“definitely untrue”) to 8 (“definitely true”).

RELIABILITY: Satisfactory internal consistency, confirmed in a sample of high school & college students and unemployed people as well as stability, confirmed in a high school sample.

VALIDITY: KNS scores correlate positively with adaptive personality variables (ground hope, optimism, self-efficacy, general self-respect, and also with extroversion and conscientiousness), negatively with anxiety, depression and neuroticism. Factor analysis has shown, in accordance with theoretical predictions, two factors: the first relating to the belief in having strong will, the second relating to the belief in one's ability to find solutions. Also confirmed was the relationship between KNS-measured hope for success and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions as well as its adaptive role in handling difficult situations.

NORMS: Standard ten, from a sample of 464 high school and 157 college students.

APPLICATIONS: Research, individual diagnosis for prognosing adaptability to environment and new challenges (e. g. in job consultancy, employee training, early stages of training personal competencies, also in psychotherapy).

•    Kit (manual, 25 answer sheets)
•    Manual
•    Answer sheets (25 copies)


Please note: All of our tests are published in Polish. There are not available other language versions of our tools.

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