John J. Ray
Polish adaptation:
Piotr Brzozowski
Adolescents over 16 years of age, adults
Individual or group administration; no time limit; approximately 10–15 min.
Especially useful for:
Psychologists (MA in psychology required); sociologists, HR specialists, career counselors – after completing the training
B1 – for psychologists; other professionals only after general psychometric training

The SD is a product of research on authoritarian personality. It measures directiveness understood as aggressive dominance (the tendency to impose one’s will upon other people).

DESCRIPTION: The scale comes in two versions: full scale (D-26) which has 26 items and abbreviated scale (D-15) which has 15 items. The subject enters his/her answers on the test sheet by selecting one of three options (YES, ?, NO).

RELIABILITY: Both scales have satisfactory internal consistency and stability.

VALIDITY: Correlations with scores on other scales (Social Approval Questionnaire, Scheler’s Value Survey, Positive and Negative Affect Scale) are in the predicted direction.

NORMS: Developed on the basis of a random sample of adult Lublin dwellers and incidental student samples.

APPLICATIONS: For research purposes.

•    Kit (manual, scoring key for D-26 version, scoring key for D-15 version, 25 D-26 sheets, 25 D-15 sheets)
•    Manual
•    Scoring key for D-26 version
•    Scoring key for D-15 version
•    Sheets for version D-26 (25 copies)
•    Sheets for D-15 (25 copies)

Please note: All of our tests are published in Polish. There are not available other language versions of our tools.

Secondary menu


Wskaż newsletter, który chcesz zasubskrybować, lub z subskrypcji którego chcesz zrezygnować.