Grażyna Krasowicz-Kupis, Anna Wojnarska
Adolescents aged 13–18
Group or individual administration; no time limit; approx. 15 min.
Test users:
Psychologists (MA in psychology required)
C – for psychologists only

Description: The questionnaire is designed to measure personality variable called the sense of control over consequences of behaviour described in J.B. Rotter's theory of social learning. The sense of control otherwise known as the locus of control (LOC) is an individual feature of any given human being and can be regarded as a dimension of personality. LOC is a variable with two extreme poles: the internal and external LOC.

Compared with the previous version items in the new KBPK were largely modified and redesigned. They required numerous revisions due esp. to the fact that they contained vocabulary no longer in use and did not pay sufficient attention to the influence of modern technologies on communication among the younger generations. The structure of items remained the same as in the first version: they are unfinished sentences with an ending to be selected from among two options. Unlike the previous version the KBPK-R has one sheet version for both boys and girls – each question contains two appropriate grammatical forms.
KBPK-R contains 43 items, including 38 diagnostic and 5 buffer ones. The overall score provides information as to the external or internal character of LOC. Scores on the Success and Failure scales provide information about factors (persons, phenomena) which the respondent makes responsible for positive or negative events in his/her life.

Reliability: The alphas of internal consistency for the overall score in all groups are over 0.8 which proves high reliability of the tool and allows for its application in individual assessment. These coefficients are far higher than those of the older KBPK version. The alphas for the Success and Failure scales are lower and satisfactory only to a very limited extent  – this is probably due to small number of items in each scale which makes for considerably lower alpha coefficient.

Analysis of the KBPK-R absolute stability was also conducted based on two successive studies (separated by the period of 2 weeks). All the analyses showed high or satisfactory reliability of the questionnaire thus proving its applicability in individual assessement.

Validity: For the validation study analyses of theoretical and criterial validities were conducted. Factor analysis of the questionnaire confirmed its homogeneity but also proved relevant the distinction given to the scales measuring successes and failures. KBPK also proved to be highly correlated with Drwal's Delta Scale – this confirms theoretical convergent validity.

To check criterial validity a number of external variables were used – they were expected to be associated in various ways with the sense of control. A variety of results were obtained confirming the KBPK criterial validity and the correlations were similar to those obtained in other researchers' studies.

Norms: S-ten norms separate for two age groups 13-15 and 15-18. The normalization sample included 1242 respondents aged 13-18 – middle, high school and vocational high school students from 11 voivodeships. The normalization study was conducted in spring 2016.

Applicability: The KBPK questionnaire can be applied both in scientific research and in individual assesssment. In the latter it can be used as a complementary tool to assess young people personalities. As such it allows to enrich knowledge about multi-dimensional personality functioning. It can be useful in clinical and legal assessments as well as in the context of education and re-socialization.


  • Full package (manual, set of questionnaires, calculation sheets)
  • Manual
  • Instruction sheets (25 cop.)
  • Calculation sheets (25 cop.)


Please note: All of our tests are published in Polish. There are not available other language versions of our tools.

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