Jerzy Trzebiński, Mariusz Zięba (2003)
School-age adolescents (over 16) or students, adults with at least secondary education
Group or individual administration; this test takes no more than 10 minutes
Test users:
Psychologists (psychology diploma required).

Basic hope, the quality measured by the BHI-12, is understood as in E. Erikson’s theory, i.e., as the individual’s conviction that all is well with the world which is organised, meaningful and benevolent. This conviction is one of the determinants of constructive answer to change and pivotal events, and particularly to situations of irreversible loss.

DESCRIPTION: The BHI-12 has 12 items; the respondent rates the degree to which he/she agrees with each item on a rating scale ranging from 1 (“definitely disagree”) to 5 (“definitely agree”).

RELIABILITY: Satisfactory internal consistency and stability, determined in a study of senior high school pupils.

VALIDITY: BHI-12 scores correlate positively with personality variables indicating good adjustment (e.g., optimism, satisfaction with life, internal locus of control, openness to experience) and negatively with anxiety and depression. Basic hope also correlates positively with constructive and pro-developmental answers to difficult situations. As predicted, factor analysis of the BHI-12 revealed two factors – one relating to belief in the benevolence of the world and one relating to belief in the world’s orderliness and predictability.

NORMS: Standard ten norms, developed on a sample of 592 high school students.

APPLICATIONS: In scientific research and individual diagnosis (especially when predicting adaptability, reaction to stress and trauma and the outcomes of educational intervention and psychotherapy).

•    Kit (manual, 25 answer sheets)
•    Manual
•    Answer sheets (25 copies)

Please note: All of our tests are published in Polish. There are not available other language versions of our tools.

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